Black History Month from The River-side

To tie into the themed display ‘Black History Month’ in this on-going series …from The River-side I’ve chosen first edition poetry books by Langston Hughes and Colleen J McElroy from the James McAuley Collection.

A selection of books on bookshelves for the theme 'Black History Month.'
Explore Black History Month book display on Q floor, UCC Library.

James McAuley Collection

James J McAuley (1936-2021) was a poet, teacher and critic. He was born in Dublin and attended Clongowes Wood College and UCD (1960-1962) graduating with a BA. In 1966 McAuley emigrated to the US where he received an MFA degree from the University of Arkansas in 1971. He taught poetry and poetics, literature and Irish Studies courses at Lycoming College and Eastern Washington University where he was also founding director of their Creative Writing Programs. For 20 years, he directed the EWU Summer Writing Workshops at the Irish Writers Centre in Dublin and from 1993-1997 he was Director of EWU Press. He retired in 1998 and lived in Dublin until his death. His poetry and prose were widely published in Ireland, England, Canada and the US. Poetry, especially American poetry, and works from small presses are particular strengths within the collection.

Langston Hughes – Montage of a dream deferred

Langston Hughes (1901-1967) was a prolific writer and is best known as a leader of the Harlem Renaissance. Montage of a dream deferred (1951) was his 10th work and his first major publication following World War II. It contains the iconic poems of “Harlem” and “Theme for English B.” In a similar way to Weary Jazz Blues (1925) he uses music references, in Montage of a dream deferred a jazz style. In addition he uses the film term ‘montage’ to create a new work from spliced, fragmented but related images of the black community of Harlem and scenes there over the course of a 24-hour period. The ‘dream deferred’ in the title refers to the migration of African-Americans from the rural south to Harlem in the 1920s where the Renaissance of music, art and literature began. However by the late 1940s the dream of political and social justice is off-set with poverty, violence, and death. The ‘dream deferred is further explored when Lorraine Hansberry used the third line of “Harlem” for the title of her play A raisin in the sun (1959). Montage of a dream deferred is divided into sections to reflect the different times of the day. Hughes dedicated the work to Ralph and Fanny Ellison. This copy is in the original Walter Miles designed dust-jacket.

Two images: on the left the book cover of 'Montage of a dream deferred'. The book cover is yellow. On the right is a photograph of Langston Hughes seated and he's smiling and looking to the left.
Front and back covers to the dust-jacket covering Montage of a dream deferred by Langston Hughes.

Colleen J McElroy

Colleen J McElroy (1935-) is Professor Emeritus of English Literature and Creative Writing from the University of Washington in Seattle, USA and in 1983 became the first black woman to be promoted to full professor at the University of Washington. McElroy started writing poetry seriously in her 30s and at that time received encouragement from various poets including Denise Levertov. She also discovered the works of black poets such as Langston Hughes, Gwendolyn Brooks and Margaret Walker and realised that role models need not be limited to Yeats or Keats. McElroy has published poetry and short story collections as well as memoirs. In addition, McElroy has received the Before Columbus American Book Award, two Fulbright Research Fellowships, two NEA Fellowships (in both fiction and poetry), a DuPont Visiting Scholar Fellowship, and a Rockefeller Fellowship. The book covers to Queen of the Ebony and Bone flames: poems are by noted book designer Joyce Kachergis (1925-2018) co-founder of Kachergis Book Design and principal founder of Women in Scholarly Publishing (WISP) with Nancy Essig.

Winters without snow (1979) deals with her divorce from poet David McElroy. The cover drawing is by Peter Urio and the title page is signed by Colleen J McElroy.

Two images: on the left is the blue & white cover of 'Winters without Snow'. On the right is the signed half-title page.
Front cover and signed half-title page to Winters without snow by Colleen J McElroy

Queen of the Ebony Isles (1984) is an award-winning poetry collection (American Book Award, 1985) depicting the world of the African American woman.

Two images: on the left is the black, white and red cover of 'Queen of the Ebony Isles' and on the right is the back cover of the book showing Colleen J McElroy.
Front and back covers to Queen of the Ebony Isles by Colleen J McElroy.

Looking for a country under its original name: poems (1984) is a limited edition of 300 printed on Ragston paper and sewn into Stonehenge covers. The title page illustration is by Mark Eaton and the cover illustration is by Bob Sutelo. There is an inscription on the title page reading “For Jim, who knows the adventure of families of countries, Colleen, 11/87.”

Two images: on the left is the front cover of the book showing a black man behind a car in the rain and on the right is the title page showing an elephant inside a circle with lines criss-crossing.,
Front cover and title page with inscription for Looking for a country under its original name: Colleen J McElroy.

The cover illustration to Bone flames: poems (1987) is a woodcut printed in Jacob Rueff’s De conceptua et generatione hominis (1587). There is an inscription on the title page of Bone flames: poems reading “For Jim, be well & keep in touch, Colleen, Spokane 11/87.” Bone Flames: poems received the Washington State Governor’s Award.

Three images: on the left is the front cover of the book showing a skeleton & on either side is a man and a woman. In the middle is the back cover of the books showing a photograph of the writer. On the right is the signed title page of 'Bone Flames'.
Front and back cover with inscription on title page to Bone flames: poems by Colleen J McElroy.

Further Interest

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Explore Cork in Books from The River-side: Cork City Libraries’ Publications

To tie into the themed display ‘Explore Cork in Books’ in this on-going series …from The River-side I’ve chosen publications by Cork City Libraries and selected a few items from their published works.

A selection of books on bookshelves for the theme Explore Cork.
Explore Cork book display on Q floor, UCC Library. 

Cork City Libraries Publications

Cork City Libraries have published books on:

  • local interest
  • Cork history
  • Cork library history
  • Cork literature
  • children’s and teen literature
  • Cork architecture
  • Cork music
  • Cork dance

Some books published by Cork City Libraries are funded from the Department of Community and Rural Development while other books are published as projects for Creative Ireland, World Book Fest, or to mark significant local events such as Cork 2005 European Capital of Culture. Some of the creative writing publications are the results of creative writing workshops with direct provision residents in the Kinsale Road Accommodation Centre or with the Write Together Centre. Publishing these various works fits with Cork City Libraries’ Mission Statement:

To place libraries at the heart of communities, welcoming and supporting everyone in their enjoyment of reading, and in their pursuit of learning, knowledge and culture.

Cork City Council Libraries 2020-2024: Placing Learning, Creativity, and Inclusion at the heart of Communities

Accessing Cork City Libraries’ Publications

Most of the books are available to download in PDF format, and they also may be available on Borrowbox. Copies of the book are available for purchase in Cork City Libraries’ branches or in various bookshops. Special Collections in UCC Library holds many of the items in its Munster Printing Collection.

Munster Printing Collection

The Munster Printing Collection focuses on items about the province of Munster or printed in the province of Munster, chiefly in the counties of Cork, Kerry and Waterford, from the late 17th century to the present day. A large part of the collection was donated in 1948 by Rev. Patrick Power, the then Professor of Archaeology in UCC. Items in the Munster Printing Collection include reference items for genealogical and topographical research, provincial & county history books, directories, bills, broadsides, pamphlets and of course books.

The Fleischmanns: A Remarkable Cork Family

In 2010 Cork City Council celebrated the centenary of the birth of Aloys Fleischmann (1910-1964), the noted Irish composer, conductor and scholar, as well as Professor of Music at UCC from the age of 24. Fleischmann collaborated with Joan Denise Moriarty to develop ballet in Ireland and he was a fervent advocate for Gaelic culture. His research on Irish traditional music is valued to this day. The Fleischmanns: a remarkable Cork family: a companion to the Fleischmann centenary celebration comprises:

  • a foreword by Cllr. Dara Murphy, then Lord Mayor of Cork
  • an introduction by Patrick Zuk
  • a section on Dachau, the town the Fleischmanns came from as seen by its painters
  • a section on Aloys Fleischmann Senior by Ruith Fleischmannn
  • a section on Aloys Fleischmann Junior by Séamas de Barra
  • various images from the Fleischmann Archive. These images include music scores, photographs, postcards, concert programmes, letters, book covers and title pages.

Joan Denise Moriarty: Ireland’s First Lady of Dance

In 2012 Cork City Council celebrated the centenary of the birth of Joan Denise Moriarty (c.1912-1992). Joan Denise Moriarty was a ballet dancer and champion traditional Irish step-dancer. She widened awareness about ballet in Cork and Ireland through two professional ballet companies (1959-1964 and 1974-1989) and at events such as Cork Ballet Week in the Opera House, accompanied by the Cork Symphony Orchestra. Moriarty collaborated with various Cork musicians including Aloys Fleischmann and Seán Ó Riada. Moriarty choreographed 115 ballets and her ballets were shown on international stages. Joan Denise Moriarty: Ireland’s first lady of dance comprises:

  • a foreword by Cllr. Terry Shannon, then Lord Mayor of Cork
  • an introduction by Liam Ronayne, then Cork City Librarian
  • a tribute to Joan Denise Moriarty by Domy Reiter-Soffer
  • different sections on dance in Moriarty’s life, the history of Cork Ballet Company, Moriarty’s choreographic language, music for the ballet and Moriarty’s legacy
  • a section on further reading and a section Joan Denise Moriarty’s life in brief
  • various images of Cork Opera House programmes, photographs of dancers and ballet on stage, and personal notes.

Cork Words: Anthologies of Contemporary Cork Writing

Both volumes of Cork Words are edited by Patricia Looney, Senior Executive Librarian at Cork City Libraries. In Cork Words 2020 edition the then City Librarian Liam Ronayne notes in the foreword that the volume is the first in what is intended to be a series of limited print editions showcasing contemporary Cork writers. He remarks that Cork has four significant literary festivals: Cork International Poetry Festival, Cork World Book Festival, Cork International Short Story Festival and the Winter Warmer Festival which attract different audiences and writers. This is in addition to the various supports for creative writing and writers including workshops in Cork City Libraries, Munster Literature Centre and ‘Fiction at the Friary.’ The first anthology Cork words: an anthology of contemporary Cork writing comprises prose and poems from writers such as Alannah Hopkin, Danielle McLaughlin, Ailbhe Ní Ghearbhuigh, Billy Ramsell and John Fitzgerald.

In the Cork Words 2021 edition, the current Cork City Librarian David O’Brien notes that almost 50 writers contributed to the volume and he acknowledges the adversity the city faced over the previous year and how the written word provides inspiration when we need it the most. In 2020 Culture Night was delivered online as were Cork’s four significant literary festivals. O’Brien acknowledges the support of Creative Ireland funding the creation of the volume. The second anthology Cork words 2: an anthology of contemporary Cork writing comprises prose and poetry from the Cork Non-Fiction Writers Group, Danny Denton, Greg Delanty, Victoria Kennefick and Thomas McCarthy.

Cork History

There are three images. On the left is an image of David Marcus overlaid on the outside of the former synagogue in Cork and a map of the Jewish area in the city. In the middle is the Victoria medal that Michael O'Leary won and in the centre of the medal is a photo of O'Leary. On the right is Lionel Cohen riding a motorbike in a field
Left: The lost soul of the world: the Cork Jewish community and the fiction of David Marcus (2008); Centre: The immortal deed of Michael O’Leary (2015); Right: Memoir of an Irish Jew (2021)

David Marcus (1924-2009) was born into a Jewish family on the Mardyke in Cork City. He founded two journals: Irish Writing and Poetry Ireland as well as co-founding the publishing company Poolbeg Press. Marcus contributed to The Irish Times and became literary editor of The Irish Press mentoring many emerging writers. In 2008 Cork City Council granted him a Civic Reception which prompted Cork City Libraries to publish The lost soul of the world: the Cork Jewish community and the fiction of David Marcus. The work includes an essay about Marcus by his uncle Gerald Y Goldberg (1912-2003) and a bibliography of Marcus’ work.

Cónal Creedon discovered the story of Michael O’Leary in the May 1979 issue of the comic Victor. On 1 February 1915, during World War I, Michael O’Leary killed eight German soldiers, captured two more, whilst saving his comrades from a dire situation at Cuinchy in France. Cónal notes that his family came from the Iveleary ‘Land of the O’Learys’ area but that Michael O’Leary was unknown to him. The immortal deed of Michael O’Leary is Creedon’s contribution to the Decade of Centenaries and in the work he writes a history of the first Irishman to receive the Victoria Cross medal for bravery during the Great War and of the O’Learys.

Lionel Cohen (1922-2000) was born into a Jewish family in Maylor Street in Cork. Cohen served in the Irish Army, the British Merchant Navy, the Israeli Army and in the fledgling Israeli Merchant Navy before returning to Cork in 1952. Lionel had written the memoir but it remained unpublished at the time of his death. His daughter Yvonne brought the unpublished memoir to publication. Memoir of an Irish Jew is Lionel’s rich personal description of the Jewish community in Cork.

Further Interest

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Banned Books from The River-side: The Tailor and Ansty

Welcome to the first post in a new series of blog posts: … from The River-side. This series will tie into the themed displays on Q floor of UCC Library and will focus on one or two items from Special Collections & Archives. These items won’t be borrowable but all are welcome to request them for use in Special Collections & Archives. To tie into ‘Banned Books’ I have selected the 1942 work The Tailor and Ansty by Eric Cross.

Bookcase with a selection of books that have all been banned.
Banned Books display on Q floor, UCC Library. The Tailor and Ansty is on the bottom shelf and is the third book from the right.

Timothy & Anastasia Buckley

Timothy Buckley (1862-1945) and his wife Ansty (?-1947) lived in Gougane Barra in Co. Cork. Timothy was born near Kilgarvan in Co. Kerry and trained as a tailor. In 1903 he married Anastasia ‘Ansty’ McCarthy and they moved to Gougane Barra where they had two sons. Buckley was a well-known storyteller and both he and Ansty were fluent Irish speakers.

Buckley used a crutch because as a child he’d had a bout of infantile paralysis which permanently afflicted his lower right leg. Therefore rather than him visiting other places the visitors came to him to hear his stories, phrases and knowledge of folklore. Visitors included writers Frank O’Connor, Seán Ó Faoláin and Eric Cross. In 1942 Eric Cross gathered Buckley’s stories and published them as The Tailor and Ansty.

Front cover to the 1942 publication of The Tailor and Ansty. The cover is beige with a green design around the title.
The Tailor and Ansty (1942), Frank O’Connor Bibliographic Collection.

Banned Book: The Tailor and Antsy

However, following the publication of The Tailor and Antsy there was a series of heated debates in the Seanad as part of the Censorship of Publications. The ‘earthy tone’ and its frank handling of sexuality provoked censure, both political and clerical censure. The book was banned for alleged indecency. Sir John Keane (1873-1956)) tabled a Senate motion opposing this prohibition, and a four-day debate ensued with Prof. William Magennis (1867-1946) as his antagonist. The sections of the text quoted in the Senate were struck from the official record. Three priests forced Timothy Buckley to burn his own copy of the book. Timothy remained positive about the censorship but Ansty was quite distressed. Timothy died in 1945 and Ansty in 1947; both are buried in Gougane Barra.

Excerpt from Frank O'Connor's foreword describing the effects of the ban on Timothy & Anastasia Buckley.
Excerpt from Frank O’Connor’s foreword to The Tailor and Ansty (1964) Frank O’Connor Collection.

1964: New Hardback Edition

In 1963 the Censorship Appeals Board reviewed The Tailor & Ansty and decided that it was not obscene. Following this a new edition was published with a dust-jacket designed by Lacey Everett.

Dust-jacket to the 1964 edition of The Tailor and Ansty. There is a house on a hill with mountains in the background.
Dust-jacket to The Tailor and Ansty (1964), Frank O’Connor Collection.

The new edition included woodcuts by Robert Gibbings.

A woodcut of a stack of hay with branches alongside it.
Robert Gibbings’ woodcut on the title page to The Tailor and Ansty (1964), Frank O’Connor Collection.

Copies of the book in both the Frank O’Connor Collection and Nancy McCarthy Allitt library have annotations by Eric Cross.

Handwritten annotation from Eric to Nancy [McCarthy] "To Nancy with love from Eric, March 1964."
Eric Cross annotation, The Tailor and Ansty (1964), Nancy McCarthy Allit Library.

1970: Paperback Edition

In 1970 the Cork publishing firm Mercier Press issued a paperback edition of The Tailor and Ansty. This cover design is by Inge Nieuwstraten.

Cover to the 1970 paperback edition. There is a kettle hung over the fire in the hearth. In front of the fireplace is a pair of glasses on a small table on the right and on the left there is a pair of boots.
Book cover to The Tailor and Ansty (1970), Ó Ríordáin Collection.

The Irish language poet Seán Ó Ríordáin annotated many of the books in his collection and his copy of The Tailor and Ansty is no different.

Excerpt from Sean O Riordain's copy of the The Tailor and Ansty with his annotations.
Annotations by Seán Ó Ríordáin in The Tailor and Ansty (1970), Ó Ríordáin Collection.


In 1968 PJ O’Connor adapted the book for the stage in the Abbey Theatre. In 2004 Cónal Creedon wrote a radio adaptation which was broadcast on RTE.

Programme to the stage production of The Tailor and Ansty. There are biographies of Eric Cross, Eamon Kelly and Maura O'Sullivan. There is a picture of a black cat on the programme.
Programme to the Abbey Theatre production of The Tailor and Ansty. Munster Printing Collection.

Further Interest

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Reflection on the Use of Scalar

The River-side welcomes this guest post from Cara Long and David Leen, student workers with the Academic Communication and Technology team in UCC Library. Cara is a final year Business Information Systems student, and David is studying Sustainability in Enterprise.


As part of our time as Student Help Assistants in UCC Library, we worked on many projects for different departments. One of the projects that we had the opportunity to work on was for Special Collections. The project was surrounding International Pi Day. We created a digital interactive book Historical Recipes in the Digital Age containing different historic recipes from the era of George Boole (mid-19th century) and from Mrs. Anne Ryan (late 19th century to early 20th century).

Before we began to format and publish the recipes and information online, we needed to sit down and decipher 19th century handwritten recipes from scans of manuscript recipe books held in Special Collections. We had to research what different terms meant, for example the words ‘Treacle’ (see ‘Orange Curd’ recipe) and ‘Dripping’ (see ‘A Plain Apple Charlotte’ recipe).

On the left is the recipe for ‘Orange Curd. ‘Treacle’ is on the third line below ‘Orange Curd’. On the right is the recipe for ‘A Plain Apple Charlotte’. ‘Dripping’ is on the second line below ‘A Plain Apple Charlotte.’ Pages 128-129, U.295, Special Collections, UCC Library.

Using Scalar

Throughout the process of creating our interactive book we used a website called Scalar. Scalar is a free, open source publishing platform. The idea behind Scalar is to make the creation of long-form multimedia scholarship easy to produce by assembling media from multiple sources. The system is designed to be used by those with little technical experience, opening more options for those who may be uncomfortable with complicated media technology.

In our experience, this ease of access was not apparent. The tutorials covered the basic aspects of the software but failed to explain some of the software’s most important features. We found it difficult to figure out which image options best suited our needs based on the tutorials, resulting in a lot of trial and error. Linking the different ingredients in the way we wanted also took more effort than we had expected. We both have experience with such software and still found it difficult. It is unlikely that people little technical experience would find the Scalar experience to be the intuitive, accessible one which the creators envisioned.

The features offered by the software are extremely interesting. As noted, the software allows for articles to be linked according to a variety of keywords or ‘tabs.’ This allowed us to link our recipes according to their various ingredients. We also considered linking by cooking styles and measurements. For example, we could have linked our recipes by key words e.g. ‘1 cup’ or ‘1/2 a pound,’ but we found it best to link our recipes by ingredients that the recipes had in common. This also allowed us to learn what was popular in the 19th century and we could see how an ingredient was popular in many dishes.

Scalar: Connections Visualisation

Although we found Scalar to be difficult to navigate and learn, the visualisation tool was a feature that helped us to see how each page, tag and path were interconnected. Below is a figure which depicts a visualisation of our own Scalar project. The blue circles are paths, which represent a linear sequence of content like the chapters of a book. The orange circles are pages, which in our case are the recipes. A single page can belong to multiple paths. The red circles are tags, which are also single ingredients. This visualisation helps us to see how our project is linked.

A connections visualisation for paths, pages and tags in Historical Recipes in the Digital Age. Different coloured circles indicate whether a path, page or tag is represented.
Connections visualisation of the relationship between pages, tags and paths in Historical Recipes in the Digital Age.

Scalar: Word Cloud Visualisation

Throughout the project we were also able to use a Word Cloud visualisation which showed us the most common and popular words that we used within our Scalar project was. As you can see below, some the words we used the most while creating our project were Collections, Ingredients, Flour, UCC and Recipes.

Word cloud visualisation of common words in Historical Recipes in the Digital Age.

Reading Handwritten Documents

Another challenge that we faced while working on this project was the ability to read the handwritten recipes from Special Collections. As most of these recipes had been hand-written in the mid-19th century it was tricky for us the decipher what the recipes said. We were kindly given many scans of different recipe books from Special Collections Librarian, Elaine Harrington, but unfortunately, we could only successfully read one. An example of the recipe books that we could not make out is a red bound notebook with marbled endpapers. It included recipes for cough medicines and other home remedies.

Pages 27-28 of a manuscript recipe book U.369 showing a recipe for Carrot Pudding on the left and recipes for Rice Balls and Apple Pudding on the right.
On the left is a recipe for Carrot Pudding and on the right are recipes for Rice Balls and Apple Pudding.
U.369, Special Collections, UCC Library.

Recipe Book: Mrs Anne Ryan

The recipe book that we used for our project was presented to the Library by Mrs Anne Ryan, from Glasheen, Cork. It consists of marbled boards and is missing one cover. It contains 156 pages with a mixture of recipes and remedies. It has recipes for Beef Tea, Genoa Pastry, Elizabeth Pudding and much more. Thankfully for us, Mrs. Anne Ryan’s recipe book was much easier to read.

We spent days reading the recipe books and typing up the recipes into a document, which then was entered into Scalar along with correlating media images. We linked all the ingredients as tags to connect our recipes together. Below is an excerpt from Mrs. Anne Ryan’s recipe book, showing recipes for Jam Sauce, Hot Syrup Sauce, Orange Curd, Apple Charlotte and a Christmas Pudding.

Pages 128-129 of a manuscript recipe book showing recipes for Jam Sauce and Orange Curd on the left and Apple Charlotte and A Plain Apple Charlotte and Plain Christmas Pudding on the right.
On the left are recipes for Jam Sauce and Orange Curd and on the right are recipes for Apple Charlotte and A Plain Apple Charlotte and Plain Christmas Pudding. U.295, Special Collections, UCC Library.

As you can see from comparing the samples from the two recipes, there is a significant difference in the ease of deciphering the handwriting.


Overall, we found the process of using Scalar quite challenging. We would recommend that if you are considering using Scalar for a project, you should consider the context of the project you are working on. Scalar isn’t very flexible for just any type of interactive project. You should consider what you are expecting of the software, what functions you want your project to have and how cooperative you want it to be. The finished product is of good quality, although it took weeks of trial and error as the user manual is not easily comprehensible. We would only recommend Scalar for those who want to create something that is content focused with strong visualisation needs.

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Work Placement: Historical Research Skills in Action

The River-side welcomes this guest post from Kian O’Mahony, a student on the 2021/2022 MA in History in UCC, that includes the HI6063: Work Placement and Portfolio module. Kian spent six weeks in UCC Library: in Academic Services, Special Collections & Archives listing small collections of maps, postcards and letters and in Digital Learning Services using the primary sources from Special Collections & Archives to create a book on Scalar, an open-source web-based publishing platform for creating networked multi-media online publications. 


For six weeks from Monday 24 January to Friday 4 March 2022, I undertook my work placement module in UCC Library as part of my MA degree in History. I worked in four sections of the library which were Special Collections, Digital Learning Services, Academic Services, and Library Archives. I will discuss aspects of my work placement which caught my interest and the skills I developed which will be of benefit for my working life after completing my degree.

Postcard Collection

A task I undertook for work experience was listing postcards. A postcard which stood out for me shows an image of the Harbour in Crosshaven in County Cork. The date of the postcard is 17 September 1906 and was sent to Miss M. Fitzgerald, whose address is James Street in Mitchelstown, which is in County Cork. The written message on the back of the postcard is readable. The image on the front of the postcard depicts some boats at a port with a coastal area in the background and the sky is clear. I chose this postcard because Crosshaven is my hometown. Crosshaven is a town in the south of Cork and is located by the sea. I found it interesting to see an image of Cork on a postcard from over a century ago. Crosshaven is famous for its yacht club, which is the oldest in the world. This postcard also gives insight into the history of Crosshaven. Studying postcards from the past also highlights methods of communication in history, which gives insight into how people lived in the past. The postcard is in prime condition and has been successfully preserved in the Special Collections in UCC library. The postcard is part of a remarkable collection in Special Collections which also have been preserved and highlight the history of Cork and everyday life of its people throughout history. This aspect of my work placement has been beneficial as I have gained the opportunity to work with historical materials, which I would be interested in after completing my MA. I also acquired the skill of handling archival materials which would be essential for potential career options in the future.

Title in lower right: The Harbour Crosshaven, Co Cork. It's a historical view of Crosshaven harbour. On the right are lots of small boats and sailing ships tied up at the dock or berthed. A few small rowing boats are anchored in the sea. The sea and harbour are in the centre of the image. In the background are various houses on a peninsula.
“The Harbour Crosshaven Co. Cork.” BL/CV/PC/KN/ Special Collections, UCC Library.

St Fin Barre’s Cathedral Library: Map Project

Part of my work placement in Special Collections involved listing maps from the St Fin Barre’s Cathedral Library, which was acquired by UCC Library in the 1980s. For preservation reasons the maps were removed from A collection of voyages and travels: some now first printed from original manuscripts: others translated out of foreign languages, and now first publish’d in English, to which are added some few that have formerly appear’d in English… and are held separately. These maps date to the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, which was the time when European explorers embarked on voyages in search of new lands and wealth. These maps gave insight into the nature of exploration and cartography during this period in history. The maps were in good condition and are still readable. I am going to discuss an example of a map I listed and what it reveals about the history of this period.

City of Cochi (Kochi)

The map which stood out to me was depicting the City of Cochi (Kochi) in India in 1663. At the time Cochi was captured by the Dutch. The map gives detail of the city of Cochi with placenames, as well as illustrations of animals, people, trees, and mountains. This map highlights the broader history of European colonization in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and how explorers travelled at the time. This map along with the other maps in this collection are well preserved but are fragile and must be handled with care. Although I had studied maps before my work placement, listing these maps from St Fin Barre’s Cathedral Library has proven beneficial allowing me develop skills such as critical thinking and analysis. This task has also helped me gain greater appreciation for historical maps and their importance in research and analysis of history.

The majority of the map print shows a historical cityplan for the city of Cochin. Trees, people, animals, buildings and ditches feature on the townplan.  At the top of the map print is the Island of Vitypin and trees, buildings, boats and people are shown on the island. Between the city of Cochin and the Island of Vitypin is the mouth of the River Cochin. On the river and sea are five ships. On the lower left of the map print is a legend of 9 places for Old Cochin (1-9), 14 places in New Cochin(a-o) and 8 places in the Governor's Palace (1-8). All are numbered or lettered and the numbers and letters are present on the cityplan. There is a compass in the top right corner.
“The City of Cochin.” BL/SFB/CVT/U/2, Special Collections, UCC Library.

Scalar Project

For my work placement in the Digital Learning Services, I participated in a project for Scalar, which is an online resource that allows users to assemble media from multiple sources. The aim of this project was to identify and scan recipes from three different historical recipe books for Pi Day on Monday 14 March 2022: Historical Recipes in the Digital Age. These recipes will be made more accessible for contemporary readers. I researched and did some writing on the historical background of the recipes. While the recipe books do not give information regarding the time they were written, my research suggested that they date to the early to mid-19th century in Ireland. The mid-19th century is associated with the Irish famine and has resulted in the stereotypical view of the Irish diet at the time only consisting of potatoes. These recipes challenge pre-conceived notions of culinary culture in Ireland at the time. These recipes gave insight into the nature of culinary culture in Cork during the Victorian period and the role food played in the everyday lives of its people. The recipes primarily consisted of sweet recipes, for example puddings which were popular dishes in Britain at the time. These recipes highlight the British influence on culinary culture at the time as Ireland was a member of the United Kingdom. Another notable aspect of the recipe books to the prevalence of medicinal recipes. These recipes highlight the medical knowledge and concerns in Ireland in the mid-19th century. This area of my work placement was beneficial for my historical research skills, which I hope to continue after completing my MA degree in UCC.

The front paper has pasted newspaper snippets of medicinal recipes e.g. 'Burns on Scalds.' The facing page has a table of contents for culinary recipes. The table of contents starts with a recipe on p95. This is a typical example of a historical recipe book.
Front board and table of contents to U.59 showing both culinary and medicinal recipes. Special Collections, UCC Library.

Charlotte Grace O’Brien Letters

An activity for my work placement in the Special Collections involved listing a collection of letters by Charlotte Grace O’Brien, which were donated to UCC Library. These letters were written in Ireland between 1879 and 1889 and were donated to UCC in the 1910s. The letters have been preserved by UCC Library and are in good condition. These letters reflect the methods of communication and correspondence between Irish people at the time, which was a major aspect of everyday life. A notable feature of the Charlotte Grace O’Brien letters is that the recipients included are political Irish figures such as Charles Gavan Duffy and John Redmond and British political figures such as Prime Minister William Gladstone. These political figures played a key role in the battle for an independent Ireland. John Redmond is a significant figure in the Irish War of Independence. The letters were frequently sent to Britain and addresses of recipients such as the House of Commons also reflect the influence of the political climate on the writings of these letters. The letters were also sent to areas of political significance in Ireland for example, Kilmainham Gaol in Dublin. This task was beneficial because not only do the letters give an outline of Irish history in the late 19th century but also highlight the role letter writing played in people’s everyday lives.

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Pi Day and Historical Recipes

Pi and Pi Day

Pi is often represented by the lower-case Greek letter π and it is the ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter.   Pi is an irrational number (a decimal with no end and no repeating pattern) that is most often approximated with the decimal 3.14 or the fraction 22/7. 

Many mathematicians including Archimedes, Fibonacci, Newton, Leibniz, and Gauss have explored π, calculated its digits, and applied it in various areas of mathematics. Until 1647, it didn’t have a universal name or symbol. The English mathematician William Oughtred began calling it ‘pi’ in his publication Clavis Mathematicae, and Leonhard Euler first used the symbol in 1737.  The reason for adopting this Greek letter is because it is the first letter of the Greek word ‘perimetros’ which loosely translates to ‘circumference.’

In 1988 Larry Shaw who worked in the San Francisco Exploratorium as a physicist organised the earliest known official or large-scale celebration of Pi Day to celebrate the mathematical constant π and it is now observed on March 14 (3.14 in the US style).  In November 2019 UNESCO designated Pi Day as the International Day of Mathematics.  

What’s a Pie?

A pie is a baked dish which is usually made of a pastry dough casing that contains a filling of various sweet or savoury ingredients. Sweet pies may be filled with apple, pecan, sugar, rhubarb, custard and cream.  Savoury pies may be filled with meat, egg and cheese, or a mixture of fruit and vegetables. All pies have a crust whether underneath the filling, layered over it or all around the filling. 

Pi Day in UCC Library

UCC Library has various manuscript recipe books. These are filled with cooking recipes, household recipes for cleaning products and medical recipes for when someone is ill.  We examined the recipes but found no recipes for pies with crusts. So we moved to pie-adjacent: cake and biscuits. To view some of the other recipes present in the manuscript recipe books visit Historical Recipes in the Digital Age on Scalar.

We decided to test the recipes but we quickly realised how they differed from modern cookbooks – no photos or sketches, no temperature given for heating the oven, imperial measurements and limited instructions. Each of us made different recipes. I will discuss Afternoon Tea Cakes & Lemon Filling, and Emma will discuss Elizabeth Pudding.

Afternoon Tea Cakes

The handwritten recipe for 'Afternoon Tea Cakes.;
“Afternoon Tea Cakes.” U.295, Special Collections, UCC Library.

I started with ‘Afternoon Tea Cakes’ and I converted 1\4 lb flour to 4oz flour (otherwise known as 100g). I readied my ingredients and my grandmother’s baking bowl. I placed the sugar and butter in the bowl and creamed them. It was much faster than it could have been as I used a handheld mixer. I added the egg, beat it and stirred it before it could curdle. There was no mention of curdling in the recipe nor what to do if curdling happened. I added the flour and folded it in with a spoon. 4oz of flour and 4oz of cornflour seemed a lot of flour products especially with one egg. I estimate that I added in 6 oz of flour products and then the mixture wouldn’t take any more flour. I cut out my rounds and placed them on the baking tray and an overflow tray! The recipe indicated they should be cooked until firm in a quick oven. Over to Google & BBC Foods’ recipe for Tea Cakes said that was 180C in a fan oven. 

I checked them after 15 minutes and by 18 minutes they were done and I laid them out on a  wire tray. 

Five images showing the progression of making the Afternoon Tea Cakes recipe. The first image shows all the ingredients laid out; the second is ready for creaming the butter & sugar; the third is ready to add the flour and corn flour; the fourth shows the mixture cut in rounds and the fifth shows the finished tea cakes.
Making ‘Afternoon Tea Cakes’.

Lemon Filling

The handwritten recipe for 'Lemon Filling'.
Lemon Filling.” U.295, Special Collections, UCC Library.

While I was waiting for the Afternoon Tea Cakes to bake I turned to the Lemon Filling recipe. I readied my ingredients – more corn flour. I rarely use it and now I’ve had two recipes with it in the one evening. I added the sugar to the water and brought it to the boil. I added the corn flour, stirred it and waited for it to thicken. Then I added the grated rind and the juice of a lemon, and stirred it in. I beat the egg yolk and once the lemon corn flour mixture was cool I added the beaten egg yolk to it. I thought the resulting mixture would be thicker, perhaps thick enough to act as a filling for the afternoon tea cakes if I wished to sandwich them. Most of the ingredients are also present in lemon curd but in different quantities and added at different points. My resulting mixture is good for using as a sauce on roasted fruit or could be included as a pie filling as described above. However it isn’t what I thought it would be – I miss photos of what finished recipes should look like.

Two images: one the ingredients laid out for making 'Lemon Filling' and the second showing the finished lemon filling in a saucepan ready for use in a pie.
Making ‘Lemon Filling’.

Elizabeth Pudding

“Elizabeth Pudding.” U.295, Special Collections, UCC Library.

For my Pi Day challenge, I decided to try the Elizabeth Pudding as it seemed to be a rather fancy bread and butter pudding, to which I’ve always been a bit partial!

The first challenge was to decipher the measurements. My archival training might help me in reading the handwriting, but pounds and ounces are another matter entirely. Enter- the Irish Mammy ™, who helpfully pointed out that it was unlikely the recipe was only calling for 2oz of bread….as that would be 1 ½ slices for an entire pudding……. I was inclined to agree. So we read it as 20 ounces, which is about 12 slices of white bread.

The bread quantity sorted, I put the pint of milk on to heat in a saucepan. Thanks to the honorary Irish Mammy ™, Mary Berry, I knew a pint is roughly equivalent to 600ml. Whilst the milk was heating, I turned to the margarine quantities in the recipe, determined to work out at least one aspect of the task myself. 5 minutes of humming and hawing later, and milk boiling, I decided it was 1 ounce of margarine. Added the marge pieces to the bread and poured over the hot milk. It then became very apparent that it was not 1 ounce of margarine……. it was 10 ounces. Whoever wrote this recipe was laughing at me somewhere!

At this point I decided to split the difference and chuck in the remaining 6 ounces of margarine and left the lot to cool, which took about 45 minutes. This step is important as I would end up with scrambled egg if I added the remaining ingredients too soon.  Once it was cooled, I began to stir with a fork as instructed. The concoction promptly turned to glue, almost breaking the fork and my wrist.

With the fork now firmly stuck, I decided to have a nice sit down and doublecheck the quality of the sherry for the recipe. I then recalled the Irish Mammy ™, who was of the opinion that a thick sliced loaf of bread mightn’t have been the best idea. After a further sherry quality check, I heated another 100mls of milk in the microwave and chucked that in. Once that cooled, and I resumed the stirring, and the mixture started to come together. I added the 2 whisked eggs, 2 tablespoons of sugar and the half wineglass of sherry. No specific quantities were given for the sugar or sherry, so I added the sugar gradually to taste and used a wine glass that belonged to my Great-Grandmother for the most accurate measurement. I omitted the nutmeg as I wasn’t able to get any in the shop, and only had cinnamon sticks in my cupboard. Which would just make it look like a Desperate Dan Cow Pie if I stuck them in.

Not trusting my own gas oven, the mixture was taken to the Irish Mammy ™’s electric oven for cooking. But not before she tasted the mixture first.

The remainder of the bottle of sherry poured in, it was into bake for 45/50 mins at 170 degrees Celsius. The recipe calls for low and slow but no more info than that, so we had to keep an eye on it. This was the responsibility of the house pudding expert- The Father.

Once cooked it was left to cool for 10 mins and then sliced. It had a lovely light spongy texture, and sweet (sherry) taste. I would definitely have it again, especially if someone else makes it!

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Seachtain na Gaeilge: Irish Language Manuscript Collections at UCC Library

UCC Library’s Special Collections & Archives has rich Irish language collections including:

  • The personal book collection of 20th century professor of Irish at UCC: Prof. Tadhg O Donnchadha also known as Torna.
  • Items in Irish from the Older Printed Books collection. This collection was created as Special Collections was formed in the late 1970s but many of the items were purchased between 1849 (when the University was founded) and 1900 whilst others were received from organisations such as the Royal Cork Institution. Many examples can be viewed on ‘Matters French.’ 
  • Séamus Ó Maolchathaigh: his printed collection and Ephemera Collection extracted from the printed collection. The ephemera include press cuttings, handwritten notes, letters, and bookmarks.
  • Seán Ó Ríordáin: his printed collection and Archival Collection.
  • The Papers of Daniel Corkery: Daniel Corkery or Domhnall Ó Corcora wrote the significant work The Hidden Ireland (1924), a study of the Irish-language poetry of eighteenth-century Munster and of the society and culture it reflected.
  • The Thomas MacDonagh Archival Collection: The letters deal mainly with MacDonagh’s activities within the Gaelic League, particularly with his fellow teacher and Gaelic League activist Padraig Mac Suibhne of Fermoy.
  • Tomás Ó Muircheartaigh Archival Collection: Ó Muircheartaigh was a seminal figure in Irish cultural life including Conradh na Gaeilge following the establishment of the Irish Republic until the 1960s. 

These collections stand along-side fine printing of Irish language and literature books and pamphlets from the Three Candles, Dun Emer and Cuala, and Dolmen Presses. 

This blog post gives an overview of how UCC Library’s Irish language manuscript collection was created and various entry points into the collection: provenance, scribes, age, size, binding, content, decoration and influences. The blog post is based on a presentation given at the Library Association of Ireland’s 2021 Rare Books Annual Seminar: ‘Scríbhinní i nGaeilge i mBailiúcháin Speisialta in Éirinn – Writings in the Irish Language in Special Collections in Ireland.’

A Call for Public Aid

In February 1925 Prof. Tadhg Ó Donnchadha published this appeal to form a collection of Irish language manuscripts.

One image: on the top left is the UCC logo from the 1920s and thereafter is a printed call seeking manuscripts for UCC Library from Torna. The call is dated February 1925 and is across one large page that is folded in two.
University College Cork: “Irish Manuscript Collection” BL/UC/CÓC/50(29-30), Special Collections.

He notes how manuscripts are scattered across the world and he appeals to those who have Munster manuscripts to cooperate in founding an Irish language collection. Torna places this call in the context of national regeneration following the foundation of the Irish Free State. He makes a special appeal to the clergy and to teachers to help with this work. The aim is for students in the college to have access to such manuscripts for literary development and to publish our manuscript materials.  Lastly Torna notes that non-UCC researchers would have access to the manuscripts as well. It’s telling therefore that the first number of collections acquired by UCC, bar Torna’s were from the clergy. The clergy were heavily involved in regional manuscript collecting, including through their work with local Irish language college. Non-UCC researchers continue to access our manuscript collections today.

Cnuasach Uí Mhurchú / Murphy Collection

The first collection, that of Professor James E. H. Murphy Professor of Irish at Trinity College Dublin (1896-1919) was acquired by UCC in 1926.

Three images: on the left is an extract from Cuirt an Mhean Oiche (Ms. 40); in the middle is a genealogy (Ms. 1) and on the right is an example of a dictionary (Ms. 20).
Three examples of manuscripts from the Murphy Collection: Ms. 40, Ms. 1, Ms. 20.

It comprises the first 77 manuscripts of the main Irish language manuscript collection. Professor Breandán Ó Conchúir produced a printed catalogue of the collection in 1991. Printed catalogues give descriptions of the creation and content of each manuscript.

Power Collection

In November 1941 UCC Library acquired Canon Patrick Power’s manuscript collection. He had been Lecturer in and later Professor of Archaeology at UCC from 1915-1932.

Two images: both manuscripts show the endleaves inside the front cover. The left image shows a ticket for a Gerald Fitzgerald of Main Street Tipperary and the stamped date UCC Library acquired the manuscript: 25 Nov 1941. The right image shows a letter stuck to the front pastedown and an inscription from Edmond (?).
Two examples of end-leaves inside the front cover of the manuscripts from the Power Collection: Ms. 78 and Ms. 80.

The acquisition comprised 28 manuscripts although another has since been acquired. When Canon Power owned the manuscripts he described some of them in the Gaelic Journal (1904-1905). Digital reproductions are available from Villanova University. Canon Power describes the manuscripts in Irish, printed in Cló Gaelach, while commentary is provided in English. This limits readability and understanding to a wider audience. 

Cnuasach Thorna / Torna’s Manuscript Collection

UCC acquired Professor Tadhg Ó Donnchadha or Torna’s manuscript collection following his death in 1949. Professor Pádraig de Brún produced a printed catalogue of the collection in 1967.

Two images of manuscripts. On the left is a decorated letter with swirly black and red design. On the right is a pasted in image of a mother looking at a child. This pasted in image is opposite the title page and is done to mimic printed books at this time.
Two examples of manuscripts from Torna’s Collection: T.xlix and T.i.

De Brún classifies 76 of the 111 manuscripts as ‘seanlámhscríbhinní’, or ‘traditional manuscripts’ using Roman numerals from T.i to T.lxxvi to identify them. The remaining 35 are classified as ‘Leabhair nótaí’ or ‘copybooks’ and are identified using Arabic numerals T.1 to T.35. T.i and T.1,

De Brún’s printed catalogue of the manuscript collection is available in two volumes has an explanation for the two types, a description of the age of the manuscripts, of the manuscript subjects and where known of the places where the manuscripts were written, where it was known in 1967 who had published on the collection including Torna himself, and an index of first lines.

Many of the scribes are of Cork City or County Cork and there’s overlap with the main Irish language manuscript sequence e.g. Donncha Ó Floinn, the Ó Longáin family, Pádraig Stúndún, Sean Ó Dreada. However there are other interesting things to note: T.xxxix was written by Chas O’Farrell in 1894 in Boston and T.xxxviii was written by Brian O Ruairc in 1841-1842 in Leitrim.

Smaller Manuscript Collections

In the early 1940s three other smaller collections came to UCC Library:

Three sets of images. On the left is a page from a Cohalan manuscript and behind it is a green cover. In the centre is a page 'Parliment na mBan' from a Lyons manuscript. On the right is a page from a O Donnchu manuscript and behind it is a black cover.
Three examples of manuscripts: Ms. 117 (Cohalan), Ms. 123 (Lyons) and Ms. 135 (Ó Donnchú).
  • 18 manuscripts were presented by Fr. D Ó Donnchú/Donoghue, CC Minane Bridge. These consist of 12 exercise books in pencil & 4 black notebooks in ink.
  • 6 manuscripts came from Canon Cohalan, St Mary’s Cathedral. 

11 manuscripts were collected by J. Canon Lyons, a PP of Kinsale, Co. Cork transferred to UCC Library. These had been presented initially to St Mary’s Cathedral in Cork by Lyons’ nephew and executor of his will the Rev. James O’Leary. Torna describes the Lyons manuscripts in the Journal of the Ivernian Society in different issues across 1914-1915 and Diarmuid Ó Murchadha has an account of Canon Lyons in the 2002 issue of Journal of the Cork Historical & Archaeological Society.

1940s – Present

UCC Library continues to collect Irish language manuscripts whether through acquisition such as:

Two images of manuscripts. On the left is a bilingual manuscript. The page on the left is in English and the page on the right is in Irish. Each page is framed by a decorative border. On the right is a decorated letter F around which is the text describing the manuscript.
Two examples of manuscripts received more recently: Ms. 198 and Ms. 202.
  • Ms. 198 written in 1898 by the scribe Edmond Barry from Youghal, Co Cork which contains a copy of Dáibhí de Barra’s original manuscript Fermoy Ms PB6 ‘Filíocht Chráifeach Dháiví de Barra’ dating from 1835.
  • Or by donation as with Ls 202 an English/Irish pocket dictionary with an ogham account and poem by the scribe Padraig Ó Stúndún in 1890. Prof. Mícheál Ó Sé, former lecturer in UCC’s Dairy Science faculty in the 1950s, acquired the manuscript and his son donated it to UCC Library in 2014.

Provenance and Scribes

Provenance or ownership can be indicated in different ways including colophons where a scribe signs and dates a manuscript, inscriptions, bookplates or spine-binding. 

  • T.1 inscription ‘Mr Flynn Cork 1832’ which appears twice. There are various other names mentioned throughout this manuscript.
  • Ms. 61: bookplate of George Augustus Hill
  • Ms. 128: spine binding of Canon Lyons’ manuscripts all show this gold tooling.
Three images: Top left is a signature on a flyleaf from a Mr Flynn Cork 1831. On the top right is a bookplate for a GAH. The bookplate shows a deer with antlers. On the bottom are the words 'Ms O Leighin 9' in gold-tooling on the spine of the leather bound manuscript.
Top left: T.i; Top right: Ms. or Ls. 61; Bottom: Ms. 128.

The scribes place their names in different ways throughout the manuscripts, some more readable than others and some in English. 

  • Ms. 80: Edmond Phealan on the end-leaves
  • Ms. 128: Seaghan (?) O Leighin at the end
  • Ms. 61: Seaghan O’ Murcughad na Raithineach (Seán Ó Murchú na Ráithíneach) on the title page
Three images: On the left is a signature before the text of the manuscript begins. On the top right is a signature at the end of the manuscript. On the lower right is a signature on the title page.
Left: Ms. or Ls.80; Top right: Ms. or Ls. 128; Lower right: Ms. or Ls. 61.


Since the donation of The Book of Lismore by the Chatsworth Settlement Trust and the Duke of Devonshire to UCC in 2020, the oldest Irish language manuscript in the collection is The Book of Lismore. The only manuscript which is older is the Regensburg Fragment which dates from the last quarter of the 12th century. The Book of Lismore dates from the 15th century & ousts the previous oldest Irish language manuscript from the 1640s, Cín Lae Uí Mhealláin (Ms. 3), by some 200 years. Of the 300 manuscripts in UCC Library: the majority date from the 19th century, some are a mixture of 18th & 19th century, there are approximately 46 dating from the 18th century and approximately 10 from the early 20th century. The dates may be derived from the manuscript where the scribe dates a title as with Ms. 90 or a colophon as with Ms. 61.

  • Ms. 204 Book of Lismore – c.15th century (dated from the colophon)
  • Ms. 61 – 18th century 1753
  • Ms. 90 – 19th century 1856
Three images: on the left is a folio from The Book of Lismore. This folio has a decorated letter on its top left. On the top right is a scribal signature from 1753. On the lower right is a title page indicating the date was 1856.
Left: The Book of Lismore (Ms. or Ls. 204); Top right: Ms. or Ls. 61; Lower right: Ms. or Ls. 90.

Size and Binding

The size of the manuscripts really vary as both the Torna manuscript are 10-11 cm whereas Ms. 128 is quarto size and Ms. 1 is folio-sized.

Four images: On the top left and lower left are the leather bindings for two hand-sized manuscripts. In the centre is a quarter leather binding with cloth for a squarish manuscript. On the right is a quarter leather binding with marbled paper and this manuscript is folio sized.
Top left: T.lxxv; Lower left: T.lxxvii; Centre: Ms. 128; Right: Ms.1.

The binding ranges from no binding at all (T.xxxvii) which I’m assured is pretty common to scholar’s binding as with T.xliii where the scribe came from Rosscarbery in Co. Cork and bound the manuscript in seal skin or T.lxxv which is bound in leather with gold tooling on the spine and front board.

Three images: on the left is a manuscript which has no binding. In the centre is a binding made of seal skin. On the right is a highly decorated spine with leather and gold tooling.
Left: T.xxxvii; Centre: T.xliii; Right: T.lxxv.

Content and Decoration

The content of the manuscripts ranges from religious texts such as prayer books to historical tales to additions such as maps.

Two images: on the left is a handdrawn map of Europe by Donnchadh O Floinn of Cork. n the right is the colophon in an upside down triangle shape.
Left:Ms. 61; Right: Ms. 128.

Decoration varies from simpler line drawings to multi-flourished initial letters to coloured drawings.

Four images: on the top left and lower left are two different decorations on the upper left of each page. One is the letter A and the other is a bird. Both are done in black ink. In the centre are five decorated letters across two pages. All are in colour. On the right is a brown harp resting on grass and it it surrounded by coloured flowers. The harp is on the last page of the manuscript.
Top left and right: T.xliii; Centre: T.lxxv; Right: T.i.

The printed book influenced the manuscript tradition where two different coloured frontispieces have been added to the manuscript to enhance it. This is a notable phenomenon especially in the content of Donnchadh Ó Floinn of Cork who had a printing press and Irish type.

Two images: On the left is a pasted in black & white print of a landscape. The landscape has a tree on the left, two figures in the middle, a round tower on the right and a ruined abbey in the background. The print is opposite manuscript text with two decorated letters in black and gold. On the right is the title page 'Eachtra an Mhadra Mhaol' and opposite the title page a wild dog in a landscape setting.
Left: T.lxxv; Right: T.i.

Tradition to Contemporary

Since 1925 when Torna published the call, UCC Library has acquired over 300 manuscripts from the 15th to 20th centuries. Of course Irish language works are held in other collections such as Older Printed Books, Munster Printing, Torna’s book collections, newspapers and various personal collections such as Séamus Ó Maolchathaigh.

Two pages facing each other. On the left is an Irish language text ruled in dry point and on the right is its translation.
““The Ancient Topography of the Two Fermoys,” transcribed by Seosamh Ó Longáin. Ms. 90.

In the 1850s Seosamh Ó Longáin created manuscripts with traditional decorated letters, ruling and and an English translation to appeal to a then non-Irish speaking contemporary cohort. Nearly 100 years after Torna’s call for public aid, UCC Library continues developing the Irish language and manuscript collections for 21st century audiences.

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#ColorOurCollections’: Images from the Archives

When my colleague Elaine Harrington proposed UCC Library’s Special Collections & Archives contribute to the #ColourOurCollections colouring festival I wondered what would work from the archival collections. When you hear “archives” do you automatically think “old stuff…like letters”. These are not exactly something you can colour in, unless you are a doodler. There’s nothing wrong with that. In fact doodling can give great insight into the person’s thoughts, but that is a story for another blog post. 

What to use?

So back to colouring. The short creative leap from letters is to a decorative letterhead from the 19th century. I checked through several items across our business collections. Again these did not really seem ‘the right tool for the job’. 

Decorative invoice letterhead of a sail ship on the sea with the company name of James Daly & Co. within a belt surrounding the image from the Buckley Collection, UCC Library Archives.

They were either too greyed in or shadowed over already, with little room for colouring in, and not much variety in the design. Putting away these images of transport and ships, I sat back and re-considered my options. 

Collection: BL/SC/B, Buckley Collection, UCC Library Archives

Sketchbooks, of course!

And then the most obvious material of them all dawned on me, sketchbooks! We are fortunate in UCC Library in having the Bantry Estate Collection. It has a selection of sketchbooks by several family members. This collection was donated by the Shelswell-White family who are still living in Bantry House, Bantry, Co. Cork.

Why this collection?

It was the first Earl of Bantry’s eldest son, Richard White, who in the 1830s-1840s while still Viscount Berehaven, laid the plans for the magnificent house and gardens extant today. Prior to and after his marriage he extensively toured the Continent, travelling as far as Russia and Poland. He sketched landscapes, vistas, houses and furnishing which he later used as inspiration in expanding and refurbishing Bantry House, Bantry, Co. Cork. These sketches can be regarded today as similar to the family sharing their holiday ‘photos’ or marking certain designs and colour inspiration for ideas on home improvements on Instagram.  

Images selected

The image ‘wall decoration’ is one of 134 images in a large hardback sketchbook with “Napoli 1843” embossed in gold on the spine. It contains pencil, ink and coloured drawings of landscapes, buildings, individuals, and ships. I chose this image because it gives you an insight into the style of that time. It obviously caught the eye of Richard and his wife, Mary for possible reproduction in their house. They took inspiration from their trips overseas and brought back ideas as well as artworks, furnishing, colour schemes and planting. These can still be seen to this day in Bantry House. The popularity in home décor doesn’t change with time, as evidenced today by long-running televison shows, glossy magazines and Insta’ posts on this subject.  

Elaborative design for a wall decoration with two mermen-like figures sitting astride a sea creature each at both ends of the design, and a face of a bearded figure in the middle. This is from a sketchbook (item number 10) in the Bantry Estate Collection: Ancillary.
Collection: BL/EP/B/A/10_wall decoration, Bantry Estate Collection: Ancillary, UCC Library Archives

The ‘Orchard’ image is one of 94 sketches in large hardback scrapbook. It contains images of country scenes from Ireland and Europe, and individuals in native costumes from around Europe. I liked this image of a simple and rewarding pursuit of gathering a home-grown harvest. Of course, it’s also a hard physical activity that many labourers did as part of their daily life. This image conveys, to me, an industry to their work. Regard their attire – All three figures are ‘sun-smart’ wearing wide-brimmed hats, conveying the long time they spent in the outdoors at this work. 

Three figures in a orchard. One figure is at the top of a ladder picking from the tree, another is at ground level nearby standing next to a barrel or container. A third figure, presumably a woman from her attire, is at ground level reaching to the foliage of a different tree, with another ladder leaning up against this tree. All three figures are wearing labourers clothing, and wide-brimmed hats. The paper is yellowed in colouration. This is from the Bantry Estate Collection. UCC Library Archives.
Collection: BL/EP/B/3303_orchard, Bantry Estate Collection, UCC Library Archives
Conversion to black & white and cropped closer image of an original sketch of three figures in a orchard. One figure is at the top of a ladder picking from the tree, another is at ground level nearby standing next to a barrel or container. A third figure, presumably a woman from her attire, is at ground level reaching to the foliage of a different tree, with another ladder leaning up against this tree. All three figures are wearing labourers clothing, and wide-brimmed hats. This is from the Bantry Estate Collection, UCC Library Archives.

As you can see the colour of the paper of the original is a dull yellow. I wasn’t sure it would work, but the conversion to a black & white image improves it for colouring. 

The last image is from the same sketchbook as the ‘orchard’ image. It is one of several of Glengarriff, an area in West Cork, near Bantry. This would have been close enough as a daytrip for the White family to visit relatives, friends and other families. This area is renowned for its beauty. The sketch offers sea, sky, and land colouring, which can be in whatever season you would like it to be. It’s up to your imagination.

Pencil sketch of a viewpoint from high of Glengarriff looking across at sky, rolling hills, coastline sea. There is small house in the distance on the coastline. This is from the Bantry Estate Collection.
Collection: BL/EP/B/3303_Glengarriff, Bantry Estate Collection, UCC Library Archives

This landscape has not changed much over the centuries. Anyone living near Glengarriff or planning to holiday in the area, take some of your time there to match that scene to today’s view. See what changes have taken place. Perhaps it does not match precisely, and we are seeing ‘artistic licence’ at work.  

Now start colouring!

I hope you have enjoyed our blog series on what and why we chose these images from our collections. Happy colouring! UCC Library’s colouring book (2022) is free to download here

Elaine, John, Emma and Emer 

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#ColourOurCollections: Images from the Cartographic Visual Collection

Following on from Elaine’s post yesterday, I am going to discuss two items I selected from our Cartographic Visual Collection for use in our #ColourOurCollections colouring book.

Napoleonic Print

The first image is from a collection of Napoleonic Prints and is based on an engraving of Napoleon Bonaparte by James Gillray (“the father of the political cartoon”) from 1806.

BL/CV/PolP/N/10 Tiddy-Doll, the great French-Gingerbread-Baker, drawing out a new Batch of Kings – his Man, Hopping Talley, mixing up the Dough [Original colour version]

The satirical print depicts Napoleon as a gingerbread baker, drawing the baked figures of three kings out of a stone baking oven with a large wooden peel. In the background Talleyrand can be seen mixing dough in a vat titled ‘Political Kneading Trough’ while a wicker basket in the foreground contains freshly baked figures (Napoleon’s relatives and allies) ready for delivery. The image is packed with satirical allusion and fun details, making it a prime candidate for the colouring book.

We hold two versions of the print, one in colour (above) and the other in black & white (below). It was the black & white version that was selected for conversion.

BL/CV/PolP/N/11 Tiddy-Doll, the great French-Gingerbread-Baker, drawing out a new Batch of Kings – his Man, Hopping Talley, mixing up the Dough [Original black & white version]

The process of converting the images was relatively straight forward. The print was first scanned and the image opened in Gimp. It was then cropped and resized to the required specifications before the threshold filter was applied. The filter provided a preview, allowing for the contrasting black and white areas to be adjusted as required. Despite some significant spotting on the original print, the end result (below) is remarkably clean.

BL/CV/PolP/N/11 Tiddy-Doll, the great French-Gingerbread-Baker, drawing out a new Batch of Kings – his Man, Hopping Talley, mixing up the Dough [Converted version]

Irish Topographical Print

The second image I selected is from a collection of Irish Topographical Prints. The print is of Ormiston House, a Scottish baronial-style residence in County Antrim, by R. Quiller Lane from 1896. It relates to a visit by Lord Cadogan, viceroy of Ireland, to the north of Ireland during which he stayed at Ormiston, then the residence of Alderman W.J. Petrie.

BL/CV/TP/Antrim/16 The Viceroy’s Visit to the North of Ireland: Ormiston, the Residence of Mr. Alderman W.J. Petrie Where Lord and Lady Cadogan Will Stay While at Belfast [Original version]

Its bold, clearly defined lines and limited shading made the image an ideal candidate for converting, as can be seen below.

BL/CV/TP/Antrim/16 The Viceroy’s Visit to the North of Ireland: Ormiston, the Residence of Mr. Alderman W.J. Petrie Where Lord and Lady Cadogan Will Stay While at Belfast [Converted version]

Other candidates were less successful when the threshold filter was applied. While I had hoped to include a location a little closer to home, the conversion of many of the topographical prints proved trickier than expected!

Unused images

The image below is from a print of the River Lee in Cork, providing a striking view of Blackrock Castle on the bank of the river. As can be seen, the detailed nature of the print didn’t translate appropriately, with the darker shades in the foreground appearing muddy and confusing while the lighter details in the background have faded or disappeared completely.

BL/CV/TP/Cork/12 The Cork River (from below the Glanmire Road.) [Converted version]

Another image I had hoped to include was from a collection of prints by William Hogarth from the Hawtin Collection. The print is part of a series of etchings titled Hogarth’s Tour (1781) and provides a view of Upnor Castle on the bank of the River Medway in Kent. A group of men, including Hogarth, occupy the shore in the foreground. While I was quite happy with the conversion, the image (below) was ultimately excluded for the purpose of space.

BL/Hawtin/HogarthPrints/Tour/3 Upnor Castle [Converted version]

Tomorrow our series of posts on the #ColourOurCollections campaign will continue, with Emma discussing her personal selection from among our Archival Collections. In the meantime, UCC Library’s colouring book (2022) is free to download here.

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#ColourOurCollections: Images from the Elizabeth Friedlander Collection

“Following on from John’s post yesterday, I am going to discuss a page I selected from the Elizabeth Friedlander Collection for use in our #ColourOurCollections colouring book.”

When it came choosing an image for the #ColourOurCollections event, the Friedlander Collection left me spoilt for choice! Elizabeth Friedlander was a 20th Century Graphic Designer. A pioneer in her field, she was the first woman to design and create a typeface, called Elizabeth. The accepted practice at the time was for typefaces to be named with their creator’s surname. However, Elizabeth was a German born Jew working in 1930s Berlin, and her surname was deemed “too Jewish”.  Having fled Germany at the outbreak of the war, she eventually settled in England, and began a career in Graphic Design. Most of her clients were businesses looking for logo and package designs. To pitch for these commissions, Elizabeth created many samples of her work, which were combined in four portfolio binders. This page is one such sample. I particularly like the dancing bull, and the intricate detail evident even in these rough sketches.

Draft Logo Sketches

Aside from the Logos, a series of pencil sketches were also considered. These were drawn by Elizabeth while she was studying at the Berlin Academy of Art. The scenes, which depict everyday life in Berlin, are wonderfully detailed and clearly demonstrate Elizabeth’s skill in her craft.

If you would like to see more of Elizabeth’s work and learn her story- check out the link 

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